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- Pecans like rich, deep soil with good drainage. At the same time they require frequent deep watering (every 7-10 days) of about 1- 1 1/2" of water especially during the time when the nuts are filling out.
If the pecans are dropping early, it could be a pollination issue. Sometimes planting another compatible pecan variety to allow cross pollination will help with nut production.
Disease problems can affect pecan quality as well. Pecan scab caused by the fungus Cladosporium carygenum is widespread and the most destructive disease of pecans. Infected nuts fail to reach full size and may prematurely fall to the ground. The best preventative practice is rake, remove, and destroy all nuts, shucks, twigs, and leaves on the ground during the winter. The pecan scab fungus (and many other diseases) are present on the old debris and the spores are spread by rain and wind after they germinate in the spring. These spores continually infect and reinfect your trees. Many scab resistant pecans are now being planted.
Insects often attack and damage the developing pecans. Plant bugs/stinkbugs and pecan nut casebearers are two common pecan pests. Stinkbugs suck the juices from young nuts and can cause damage. Pecan nut casebearers will get inside the nuts and damage them. Again rake and discard debris and nuts.
You may want to spray your tree with a recommended fruit and nut tree spray. These usually contain a combination of a fungicide and insecticide. Always read and follow all label directions.